Thursday, January 30, 2020
Post-16 option Essay POST 16 Ã¢â¬â OPTIONS Post 16 options are given to young people and adults after they finish year 11 from school. Each post-16 option offers you different qualification opportunities and a different mix of teaching methods and assessment. Post 16 options comprises on: STUDY FULLL TIME 6th form or college Take up an Apprenticeship, Traineeship or Supported internship Take a part-time education or training course if you are employed or volunteer for more than 20 hours per week STUDY FULL TIME Schools, colleges and training providers offer a range of subjects and courses in which a student can study full-time. It normally requires to have at least five GCSEs at grades A* to C and at least grade B in any specific subjects one chooses. 6TH FORM COLLEGES A sixth form college is an educational institution in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels, BTEC and the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or school-level qualifications such as GCSEs. In England and Wales, education is only compulsory until the end of year 11, the school year in which the pupil turns 16 (although this is changing in August 2013 to compulsory education until year 12 and by 2015, education will be compulsory until year 13) In the English and Welsh state educational systems, those wishing to continue may either stay on at a secondary school with an attached sixth form, transfer to a local sixth form college, or go to a more vocational further education college, although, depending on geographical location, there may be little choice as to which of these options can be taken. In the independent sector, sixth forms are an integral part of secondary schools (public s chools), and there is also a number of smaller-scale independent sixth form colleges. Students at Sixth Form College typically study for two years. Some students sit AS examinations at the end of the first year, and A-level examinations at the end of theÃ second. In addition, in recent years a variety of vocational courses have been added to the curriculum. There are currently over 90 sixth form colleges in operation in England and Wales. Most perform extremely well in national examination league tables. In addition, they offer a broader range of courses at a lower cost per student than most school sixth forms. In a few areas, authorities run sixth form schools which function like sixth form colleges but are completely under the control of the local education authorities. Unlike further education colleges, sixth form colleges rarely accept part-time students or run evening classes, although one boarding sixth form college exists. Take up an Traineeship, Apprenticeship or Supported internship Traineeship It makes one get ready for work or for doing an Apprenticeship. They last from six weeks to six months and provide essential work preparation training, literacy and numeracy skills and work experience to get an Apprenticeship or other job. Apprenticeship In an apprentice ship one has to work for an employer and train to do a specific job at the s Apprenticeships at three levels: a, Apprenticeship b, Advanced Apprenticeship c, Higher Apprenticeships Entry requirements for these apprenticeships is one must be 16 or over, living in England and not in full-time education. There are now nearly 200 types of Apprenticeship from engineering to boat building, veterinary nursing to accountancy. Options depend on experience and what is available locally. There is no set time for completing an apprenticeship. Most take between one and four years, depending on the level of learning capabilities. As well as working alongside and learning from experienced staff, there will be off-the-job training, usually on a day-release basis at a local college or specialist training facility. The qualifications will be a study for a work-based qualification at level 2, 3 or 4, a technical certificate relevant to to the subject chosen occupation, such as BTEC or City Guilds award and Functional Skills qualifications. More studies included for certificates or other qualifications that are required in chosen occupation. Assessment includes a mix of observation by an assessor, the assessment of aÃ portfolio of evidence and examinations. Supported internship Just for students with learning difficulties or learning disabilities who want to get a job and need extra support to do this. They last for at least six months and are unpaid. Work experience and an employer trains students to do a job role. Students also get to study for qualifications or other courses to get ready to take up a job. Work or volunteer while studying or training part-time It is a combined training or studying for a qualification and work at the same time. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be a paid job, student can volunteer on a project or with a charity, or get a work-experience placement in a career or job area that interests them. Colleges and training providers offer a wide range of training courses which are part-time including A levels and work-related qualifications like BTECs or NVQs. BTECÃ¢â¬â¢s- are usually studied at school or college they are work based qualifications that are a mix between practical and theory and some work experience. NVQÃ¢â¬â¢s- these can be taken either at school/college, through a placement or in the work place.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Capitalism A form of economic order characterized by private ownership of the means of production and the freedom of private owners to use, buy and sell their property or services on the market at voluntarily agreed prices and terms, with only minimal interference with such transactions by the state or other authoritative third parties. Communism 1.Any ideology based on the communal ownership of all property and a classless social structure, with economic production and distribution to be directed and regulated by means of an authoritative economic plan that supposedly embodies the interests of the community as a whole. Karl Marx is today the most famous early theoretician of communism, but he did not invent the term or the basic social ideals, which he mostly borrowed and adapted from the less systematic theories of earlier French utopian socialists -- grafting these onto a philosophical framework Marx derived from the German philosophers Hegel and Feuerbach, while adding in a number of economic theories derived from his reinterpretation of the writings of such early political economists such as Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo. In most versions of the communist utopia, everyone would be expected to co-operate enthusiastically in the process of production, but the individual citizen's equal rights of access to consumer goods would be completely unaffected by his/her own individual contribution to production -- hence Karl Marx's famous slogan "From each according to his ability; to each according to his need." The Marxian and other 19th century communist utopias also were expected to dispense with such "relics of the past" as trading, money, prices, wages, profits, interest, land-rent, calculations of profit and loss, contracts, banking, insurance, lawsuits, etc. It was expected that such a radical reordering of the economic sphere of life would also more or less rapidly lead to the elimination of all other major social problems such as class conflict, political oppression, racial discrimination, the inequality of the sexes, religious bigotry, and cultural backwardness -- as well as put an end to such more "psychological" forms of suffering as alienation, anomie, and feelings of powerlessness. 2.The specifically Marxist-Leninist variant of socialism which emphasizes that a truly communist society can be achieved only through the violent overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of a "dictatorship of the proletariat" that is to prepare the way for the future idealized society of communism under the authoritarian guidance of a hierarchical and disciplined Communist Party.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
It was Raoul, and I wished for him to go away. He knocked again then stuck his head around the door. Ã¢â¬ËHow are you? Ã¢â¬â¢ he asked with concern. Anger overcame me. Ã¢â¬ËFor godÃ¢â¬â¢s sakes, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t send me away because of a headache. But if you think I look suspicious why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you report me yourself, after all, you become their lackey more and more each day,Ã¢â¬â¢ I retorted, staring him down. He paled, Ã¢â¬ËKeep your voice down, people outside might hearÃ¢â¬â¢, he shut the door behind him and stepped in the room. I tried to force myself to be calm. What is it that you want? Ã¢â¬â¢ I asked him coldly. I knew I was over reacting but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care, he was the only one who I could take my anger out on, though by looking at his darkening expression I could see it was becoming increasingly dangerous to do so. I had a habit of pushing the people who tried to get close to me away. It started out as an accident but now I just generally didnÃ¢â¬â ¢t want to talk to people, I avoided them as much as possible. Ã¢â¬ËMaybe you donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about being taken but I do, caution is the only thing that has kept us safe thus far. No thanks to you,Ã¢â¬â¢ he added. Ã¢â¬ËA headache is nothing, but you know how little things are blown out of proportion. It is a short step from a whisper of gossip to being sent to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s so called Ã¢â¬Å"refugeÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËYou have been made a supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢, I said flatly and now his face flushed. A look of pride mixed with shame passed across his face. Ã¢â¬ËHow could youÃ¢â¬â¢, I asked, hurt. I know that we had never been close since being taken but he was still my brother, but for some reason I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring myself to tell him that I did love him in my own way. He must have assumed that I wanted nothing to do with him. He raised his fist and shook it in my face, Ã¢â¬Ëyou will not ruin this for me, you may be my sister but it is my obligation to this facility to denounce you. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËYou wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t dare denounce me. Ã¢â¬â¢ I said. Ã¢â¬ËYour own fate would be ruined if it was known that you had a psycho as your sister, they would drag you to the Ã¢â¬Å"refugeÃ¢â¬ along with me. So donÃ¢â¬â¢t pretend you care for me. Ã¢â¬â¢ A look of hate passed over his face before he turned and headed out of my room. When he had gone I was still filled with tension. We used to be so close when we were younger, a dutiful son and I the wandering daughter, loved dearly by our parents. But that was all destroyed when the government took my mother to the Ã¢â¬Å"refugeÃ¢â¬ and my father had followed to rescue her but he never came home. Then a week after my parents disappeared, a man in a suit came, looking all important with his hat and briefcase. My brother only opened the front door to let him in because he had information regarding our parents. He told us that they were taken by the government for resisting the system and that we would never see them again. And that my brother and I were to be taken to a government institution for orphans like us. I was only 8 years old at the time. Raoul was 12. This was of course where we were now, having no choice but to accompany the staunch looking businessman in his stiff dark suit. Inside the facility was a school and factory. We orphans were made to mass produce objects the government needed. My mother was accused of, by one of her close friends, being a person with special abilities, much like a witch. However, they were mental abilities which gave her the power to read thoughts and emotions. But I, unknown to anyone but my brother, had inherited her abilities and more. I could Put thoughts into the minds of others and make them act on it, as well as being able to read thoughts and emotions. These abilities only came to me recently, exactly after I turned 16 three months ago and soon I was to be tested again by the probing machines, which tested any for any possible signs these abilities manifesting. I had recently been suffering from major headaches, rendering me senseless and immobile, and it was these that were causing me to be under suspicion. In this institute, it was dangerous to be seen talking to others because close friendships were not allowed. Though it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t hard for me to avoid making friends, I stayed clear of making friends, preferring not to open myself up to another but rather keeping everything bottled up inside. Pretty soon after I arrived here, the others learned that I wanted nothing to do with anyone so I was left to myself. I once heard a girl comment on my lack of social skills, the other girl she spoke to just said that it was thought I suffered from severe depression. A simple hello could be considered as forming an alliance between the children that might lead to future trouble. In this place, suspicion was like a physical plague. Not that I had any trouble avoiding talking to others; I avoided it as much as possible, never being able to enjoy interacting like normal people, unable to communicate my feelings and desires through physical touch or talk. I asked an instructor why we were here once and he told me simply that we orphans didnÃ¢â¬â¢t belong with normal people because of who and what our amilies had been. And that if we were to leave the institute, society would shun us or pretend that we did not exist. I looked back to the times when I was living at home, I had a few friends, not many due to my shyness, but we did everything together, wandered the village, roamed the areas and playing games every chance we could. Thinking about them now, they probably wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember me and if I were to show up one day in my old home, they pr obably wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t greet me warmly or at all. Most likely I would be avoided like a bad smell. That fact alone is one of the reasons I dislike making friends, alienating myself from them because IÃ¢â¬â¢m scared of being hurt. The instructors thought my headaches were a result of working with dangerous substances, and when I cried out in the night in pain, they heard about it from the whisperers, those of us orphans who told the instructors about anything suspicious to give them a good name. They had been asking me suspicious questions and I new it was only a matter of time before they linked the headaches to my mental abilities as these were known symptoms. And now I had to worry about my brother dragging me along to these instructors himself! I knew it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be long before I was discovered and sent away to the Ã¢â¬Å"refugeÃ¢â¬ , another government facility specifically designed to house people like me. But everyone knew that the name is hollow, that there is no refuge but existing in its place is an experimental research jailhouse for the abnormal people like me. The government wanted to figure us out and use us to their own advantage. Not for the first time did I feel cold and alone, knowing there was no one who I could confide my worries or fears too, no one who could comfort me or give me support, no one that could understand me. I just wanted to belong to someone or something. Resigned to my fate, slowly, remembering better days in my parents loving arms, I silently cried myself into sleep. I woke up to my bedcovers being roughly pulled off. As far as I could tell from the darkness, it was well before 6am when I had to wake up and get ready for the day. Someone turned on the light and I was blinded by its sudden brightness. My eyes adjusted to the light as I blinked away sleep. Two instructors and my brother were standing next to my bed. Ã¢â¬ËGet up, you are to be taken to the testing room,Ã¢â¬â¢ said the instructor closest to the door. I looked at my brother questioningly but he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t meet my eye. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t scared like I thought I would be as I walked barefoot down the cold bare corridor, I felt numb, like all my senses and emotions were shut away into a box inside my mind. I tried to sense thoughts or feelings of the three accompanying me but I only received a similar numbness as to what I was experiencing. It was as if they had done this kind of thing so many times that they were immune to any thoughts about it. We stopped in front of the door leading to the room, I had been in this room a number of times, like all the other orphans in the vicinity, and it was unchanged from my previous visits. The bright harshly lit white-walled room consisted of a plain synthetic chair with a small square table holding a computer. I was lead through a glass door to the right of the desk, into another section that contained the CT scanner machine. The CT scanner was what would scan my brain looking for abnormally functioning brainwaves. The supervisor roughly grabbed my arm, painfully strapping it. After which he injected a large syringe filled with purple die into my protruding vein. Although painless, the intensity of this experience made me feel rather light-headed. I wished there was someone who cared enough about me to save me, or to give me a reason to resist and attempt escape. But there was no one. They put a tight brace upon my head to prevent any movement of the head, which would disrupt the scanning process. Then earmuffs were placed over the brace and onto my ears to drown out the intensely loud buzzing of the machine in action. I felt like I was in a kind of trance as they lead me to the machine, there was complete silence throughout the whole process. The last time a word had been uttered was back in my bed-chamber. Oh how I longed to be back in my small, hard bed, and for what was happening to be nothing more than just another nightmare.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The doctrine of apartheid (separateness in Afrikaans) was made law in South Africa in 1948, but the subordination of the black population in the region was established during European colonization of the area. In the mid-17th century, white settlers from the Netherlands drove the Khoi and San people out of their lands and stole their livestock, using their superior military power to crush resistance. Those who were not killed or driven out were forced into slave labor. In 1806, the British took over the Cape Peninsula, abolishing slavery there in 1834 and relying instead on force and economic control to keep the Asians and Africans in their places. After the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, the British ruled the region as the Union of South Africa and the administration of that country was turned over to the local white population. The Constitution of the Union preserved long-established colonial restrictions on black political and economic rights. Codification of Apartheid During World War II, a vast economic and social transformation occurred as a direct result of white South African participation. Some 200,000 white males were sent to fight with the British against the Nazis, and at the same time, urban factories expanded to make military supplies. The factories had no choice but to draw their workers from rural and urban African communities. Africans were legally prohibited from entering cities without proper documentation and were restricted to townships controlled by the local municipalities, but strict enforcement of those laws overwhelmed the police and they relaxed the rules for the duration of the war. Africans Move Into the Cities As increasing numbers of rural dwellers were drawn into urban areas, South Africa experienced one of the worst droughts in its history, driving nearly a million more South Africans into the cities. Incoming Africans were forced to find shelter anywhere; squatter camps grew up near major industrial centers but had neither proper sanitation nor running water. One of the largest of these squatter camps was near Johannesburg, where 20,000 residents formed the basis of what would become Soweto. The factory workforce grew by 50 percent in the cities during World War II, largely because of expanded recruitment. Before the war, Africans had been prohibited from skilled or even semi-skilled jobs, legally categorized as temporary workers only. But the factory production lines required skilled labor, and the factories increasingly trained and relied on Africans for those jobs without paying them at the higher-skilled rates. Rise of African Resistance During World War II, the African National Congress was led by Alfred Xuma (1893-1962), a medical doctor with degrees from the United States, Scotland, and England. Xuma and the ANC called for universal political rights. In 1943, Xuma presented the wartime Prime Minister Jan Smuts with Africans Claims in South Africa, a document that demanded full citizenship rights, fair distribution of the land, equal pay for equal work, and the abolishment of segregation. In 1944, a young faction of the ANC led by Anton Lembede and including Nelson Mandela formed the ANC Youth League with stated purposes of invigorating an African national organization and developing forceful popular protests against segregation and discrimination. Squatter communities set up their own system of local government and taxation, and the Council of Non-European Trade Unions had 158,000 members organized in 119 unions, including the African Mine Workers Union. The AMWU struck for higher wages in the gold mines and 100,000 men stopped work. There were over 300 strikes by Africans between 1939 and 1945, even though strikes were illegal during the war. Anti-African Forces Police took direct action, including opening fire on demonstrators. In an ironic twist, Smuts had helped write the Charter of the United Nations, which asserted that the people of the world deserved equal rights, but he did not include non-white races in his definition of people, and eventually South Africa abstained from voting on the charters ratification. Despite South Africas participation in the war on the side of the British, many Afrikaners found the Nazi use of state socialism to benefit the master race attractive, and a Neo-Nazi gray-shirt organization formed in 1933, which gained increasing support in the late 1930s, calling themselves Christian Nationalists. Political Solutions Three political solutions for suppressing the African rise were created by different factions of the white power base. The United Party (UP) of Jan Smuts advocated the continuation of business as usual and said that complete segregation was impractical, but added there was no reason to give Africans political rights. The opposing party (Herenigde Nasionale Party or HNP) led by D.F. Malan had two plans: total segregation and what they termed practical apartheid. Total segregation argued that that Africans should be moved back out of the cities and into their homelands: only male migrant workers would be allowed into the cities, to work in the most menial jobs. Practical apartheid recommended that the government intervene to establish special agencies to direct African workers to employment in specific white businesses. The HNP advocated total segregation as the eventual ideal and goal of the process but recognized that it would take many years to get African labor out of the cities and factories. Establishment of Practical Apartheid The practical system included the complete separation of races, prohibiting all intermarriage between Africans, Coloureds, and Asians. Indians were to be repatriated back to India, and the national home of Africans would be in the reserve lands. Africans in urban areas were to be migratory citizens, and black trade unions would be banned. Although the UP won a significant majority of the popular vote (634,500 to 443,719), because of a constitutional provision that provided greater representation in rural areas, in 1948 the NP won a majority of seats in the parliament. The NP formed a government led by D.F. Malan as PM, and shortly thereafter practical apartheid became the law of South Africa for the next 40 years. Sources Clark Nancy L., and Worger, William H. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. Routledge. 2016, LondonHinds Lennox S. Apartheid in South Africa and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Crime and Social Justice No. 24, pp. 5-43, 1985.Lichtenstein Alex. Making Apartheid Work: African Trade Unions and the 1953 Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act in South Africa. The Journal of African History Vol. 46, No. 2, pp. 293-314, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.Skinner Robert. The dynamics of anti-apartheid: international solidarity, human rights and decolonization. Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa: Future Imperfect? UCL Press. p 111-130. 2017, London.